German army officer, geographer, and prominent advocate of the geopolitical basis for Nazi plans for world domination. He spent the years 1908-10 in Japan, where he observed Japanese Asian policies and collected data for his political geography of that country. After his retirement from the army in 1919, he turned his focus to Germany, where he became director of the Institute of Geopolitics at the University of Munich. He had great influence on the German army and on Hitler. Under investigation for war crimes after Germany’s defeat in World War II, he and his Jewish wife committed suicide.